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Chapter 8: Questionnaire

Provided by the International Finance Corporation


Emissions/Discharge
Insurance
Paper
Raw Materials
Solid Waster Management
Transport & Distribution
Water

Energy
Laws and Regulations
Process/Design Operation
Site/Building
Storage On Site
Waste
Water Use/Discharge

Energy Sources/Use
Packaging
Product Design
Solid & Hazardous Waste
Bulk Storage
Waste Disposal



Questionnaire for Establishing Priorities for Objectives and Targets

The following questionnaire is a checklist  for establishing priorities and building an action plan. While it may not include all specific business activities of a company, it provides areas for consideration. Review the questions in each section carefully and identify how the products, activities, and services of your company could significantly impact the environment.

 

Emissions/Discharge

YESNO

Have all sources of emissions to water, air and land been identified? Besides obvious sources, there may also be more diffuse sources, such as drying or surface cleaning operations which need to be assessed.

YESNO

Have all potential sources of air emissions been identified? Have all direct (i.e., stack) and indirect (i.e., fugitive) sources of emissions been identified?

YESNO

Have all stacks, vents, and exhausts and associated air pollutant sources been identified and located?

YESNO

Have the emissions being released into the environment by the organization's operations been identified, quantified and minimized?

YESNO

Can all emissions, including any low concentration contaminants, be quantified? Is the company aware of the physical and chemical characteristics of these emissions?

YESNO

Are emissions monitored and are detailed records kept? Have the appropriate authorizations been secured for these emissions? Do these emissions consistently meet legal requirements?

YESNO

Reducing one form of emission may result in increases in other emissions. The overall environmental impact of any planned emission controls must always be fully considered.

YESNO

Have any detectable odors, solid particulates, liquid droplets or mists been detected in the air?

YESNO

Is monitoring equipment installed to allow detection?

YESNO

Have developments in process and abatement technology been reviewed to establish the best available techniques to minimize emissions?

YESNO

Are current legal requirements being met? Is the organization aware of any likely future standards?

YESNO

Have targets been set to reduce emissions? If so, have measures to achieve these targets been identified?

Definitions: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)

These are gases created by the operation of the transformation process. For example, when spray painting a bicycle, most of the paint lands on the bicycle or the backdrop. The paint that does not land on the product is called overspray. However, some of the paint goes into the air where it can escape into the atmosphere. These gases can be dangerous or poisonous. In general, VOCs are thought to be precursors of air pollution. VOCs are also found in adhesives, sealers, solvents, and paints.  HAPs are considered toxic, and in high concentrations can cause illness in people, animals, and adversely affect vegetation through exposure.

Energy

YESNO

Is energy used efficiently?

YESNO

Have ways to reduce consumption been investigated?

YESNO

Is energy consumption regularly reviewed?

YESNO

Are energy efficiency practices encouraged?

YESNO

Are employees trained in energy conservation?

YESNO

Are energy bills/usage monitored by individual departments or the company centrally?

YESNO

Are buildings designed and insulated to reduce energy loss and promote energy efficiency?

YESNO

Is the efficiency of heating and air conditioning systems monitored?

YESNO

Is lighting energy efficient in design and operation? Is the use of natural light maximized?

YESNO

Are electrical appliances the most energy-efficient type available?

YESNO

Has the installation of integrated energy management systems been investigated? These can control heating, lighting, air conditioning and electrical loads.

YESNO

Are transport and distribution functions efficient in their fuel use?  What are the parameters determining "efficiency"?

YESNO

Are emissions from energy sources on site, such as boiler houses and generators, controlled?

YESNO

Can the organization reduce its use of energy derived from fossil fuels?

YESNO

Have alternative energy sources (such as methane from landfill gas, refuse-derived fuel or combined heat and power systems),  if available, been reviewed?

Note: Some of the waste created by the transformation process can take the form of the inefficient use of energy, such as electricity. If there is a machine that requires more energy to operate than other available options, the excess energy consumed can be considered as  "waste".

Energy Sources/Use

YESNO

Has energy consumption during production been minimized?

YESNO

Can more environmentally-sound energy sources be used?

YESNO

Have the least environmentally damaging sources of energy been selected? There may be opportunities to use combined heat and power, land fill gas, solar power, waste derived fuel, wind energy and other sources.

YESNO

Have possibilities for energy recovery been maximized? Options include heat exchanges, recirculating cooling or process water or improving plant insulation.

YESNO

Are energy usage and costs monitored, and have efficiency or reduction targets been set? Furthermore, can this be done for individual departments?

YESNO

Are there opportunities to use high efficiency motors and variable speed drives?

YESNO

Are the factory and office premises designed to maximize energy efficiency? Have they been insulated?

YESNO

Could equipment be upgraded to improve energy efficiency?

Insurance

YESNO

Is there any area in which full environmental indemnity may be difficult or impossible to obtain?

YESNO

Is there any area in which insurance companies may place limits or exclusion on liability coverage?

Note: EMS implementation may help facilitate negotiation with insurance companies.

Laws and Regulations

YESNO

Is the company required to comply with environmental laws and regulations? The company should be active in all areas which laws and regulations are addressed.

YESNO

Are any of the company's activities not in compliance with legal requirements?

YESNO

Are there specific areas of the company with particular environmental pressures from legislative requirements or/ and laws?

Packaging

YESNO

Is packaging minimized in products for transportation or sale?

YESNO

Is packaging material recycled or reused?

YESNO

Could the organization's suppliers and customers be encouraged to recycle used packaging?.

YESNO

Can the company's packaging be reduced? Can its products be distributed and sold in bulk or loose? Can packaging be designed to be reused, refilled or recycled?

YESNO

Can new/other packaging materials be used to facilitate waste disposal?

YESNO

Can consumers be encouraged to reuse or recycle packaging through bottle bank collections and the reuse of plastic bags and refillable containers?

YESNO

Has the company considered or implemented a "take back" policy on the packaging of its products?

Paper

YESNO

Can paper use be reduced or made more efficient by means such as greater use of electronic mail, voice communications or changes in office practices?

YESNO

Can more recycled paper be used in offices?

YESNO

Are there opportunities to reduce costs by using recycled paper?

YESNO

Have possibilities for recycling waste paper been investigated? Would it reduce waste disposal costs?

YESNO

Are different types of waste paper separated for reuse and recycling?

YESNO

How many internal and external business forms does the organization have? Are they all necessary?

YESNO

Are employees encouraged to do more double-sided photocopying?

YESNO

Are internal circulation lists based on a need-to-know basis, particularly where long or costly documents are concerned?

Process Design/Operation

YESNO

Are the environmental impacts of manufacturing processes minimized during normal operations and periods of maintenance, testing or shutdown?

YESNO

Are processes designed to minimize energy, water usage and raw material consumption?

YESNO

Does the organization recycle or reuse energy, water and materials where practical?

YESNO

Are appropriate environmental monitoring systems in place throughout these processes?

YESNO

Are the best available techniques used to prevent environmental damage? Are technological developments reviewed regularly to identify possible improvements?

YESNO

Are processes designed and operated to minimize effluents, emissions and solid waste?

YESNO

Are effective environmental procedures in place to cover periods of abnormal operation, such as maintenance or testing?

YESNO

Could processes be designed to be waste-free?

Note: Suppliers frequently use packaging material such as cardboard, paper, plastic strapping, plastic wrapping film, wooden pallets or plastic foam. In many cases, these items are landfilled.

Product Design

YESNO

During product design, are the actual and potential environmental impacts considered and minimized? Do these considerations extend from supply and production through use to ultimate disposal?

YESNO

Are the company's products subject to current or proposed environmental legislation? Can these legal requirements be met?

YESNO

Are products designed to minimize the energy and raw materials required to make them? Has the potential for using recycled materials been maximized?

YESNO

Can the product be designed in a way that would reduce the environmental impact of the production processes and minimize waste production?

YES

Raw Materials

YESNO

Does the company consider the environmental impact of obtaining and using raw materials?

YESNO

Which raw materials does the company use, and what is the source of these materials? What environmental impacts arise at the source and during any subsequent processing?

YESNO

Does environmental legislation restrict the raw materials used in the company's products?

YESNO

Has the company considered using alternative materials, which may be less environmentally damaging or which may make the final product more environmentally sound? In particular, can the choice of raw materials reduce impact during waste disposal?

YESNO

Could recycled or recovered raw materials be used? Could any cost reductions could be achieved by recycling materials?

YESNO

Are the company's suppliers of raw materials adopting sound environmental policies and practices?

YESNO

Can raw materials be obtained from renewable resources?

YESNO

Are raw materials over-specified? Could lower grade or recycled materials be used?

YESNO

Are any potentially hazardous materials used? Could these be replaced or delivered and used in ways with a lesser impact on the environment, health and safety?

Site/Building

YESNO

Are building utilities properly operated, checked and maintained? Heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment are among the areas of importance

YESNO

Are there procedures for safe maintenance and disposal of equipment containing environmentally damaging chemicals, such as PCBs and CFCs?

YESNO

In purchasing equipment, are products chosen with lower environmental impact, such as CO2 fire extinguishers?

YESNO

Are there opportunities to landscape the site or refurbish buildings to improve the appearance and the working environment?

YESNO

Are there areas of contaminated land on the site? If so, can they be restored or can any impact from the contaminants be minimized?

YESNO

Has the company investigated whether there are awards or grants available to assist with site improvements?

YESNO

Are waste storage facilities appropriately designed?

YESNO

Are there opportunities to develop the wildlife on site? For example, are there ponds or hedges or areas of wasteland which could be developed for this purpose?

Solid and Hazardous Waste

YESNO

Has the company determined whether it has hazardous waste on site?

YESNO

Has the company investigated whether it complies with all local, state and federal regulations concerning hazardous material storage, handling and disposal?

YESNO

Is local fire protection adequate and equipped to provide protection in the event of an accident or problem involving hazardous material?

YESNO

If local fire protection is not adequate, is private fire protection provided?

YESNO

Has an employee been designated and trained as a chemical emergency coordinator?

YESNO

If the company stores hazardous materials on site, are emergency telephone numbers posted along with information about the location of emergency equipment?

YESNO

Is information continuously updated and readily available about the physical state and material properties (solid, liquid, and gas) of all hazardous substances used as raw materials stored and used on site?

YESNO

Are all hazardous materials clearly labeled, dated, easily identified and regularly inspected for container leaks, corrosion, rupture or other failures?

YESNO

Are hazardous materials stored so that they do not react with one another or with containers?

Solid Waste Management

YESNO

Has the company assessed the possibilities for minimizing waste generation? Are wastes managed efficiently and safely on site?

YESNO

Does the company comply with all existing legislation and is it aware of likely future standards?

YESNO

Does the company know how much waste it produces and what its waste contains?

YESNO

Is there scope for recycling waste as a secondary raw material or for alternative processes? Could another company make use of the company's wastes?

YESNO

Does the company have clear procedures for managing waste on site? Are employees involved in handling waste properly trained and aware of their responsibilities?

YESNO

Has the company set targets to reduce the quantities of solid waste it generates?

YESNO

Are recyclable and non-recyclable wastes separated to facilitate recycling?

YESNO

Are wastes stored on site securely and in a manner minimizing environmental risks? For example, are wastes correctly labeled and packaged, and are waste stores suitably contained?

YESNO

Are there defined procedures to handle waste spillage? Are employees trained to implement these procedures?

Storage On Site

YESNO

Are any raw materials, products or waste materials that are stored on site properly managed to minimize risk of environmental damage?

YESNO

Are any legal requirements relating to storing potentially hazardous materials met?

YESNO

Are storage areas contained to prevent run-off of chemicals in the event of an accident or fire?

YESNO

Are hazardous materials kept in a secure place?

YESNO

Are all storage containers, such as drums and bottles, clearly and correctly labeled?

YESNO

Are hazardous materials handled properly during delivery and unloading?

YESNO

Are bulk storage tanks fitted with low or high level alarms, and are vent pumps fitted and protected against electrostatic hazards for flammable materials?

YESNO

Are there appropriate contingency plans in event of a spill, accident or fire?

The following table will help in monitoring bulk storage materials.

Bulk Storage of Oils and or Chemicals

No. of Tanks

Contents

Age (yrs)

Capacity

Location

Above or Below Ground

Bundle (Y/N)

 Level Alarm (Y/N)

               
               

 

Transportation and Distribution

YESNO

Has the company attempted to reduce the impact of its transport and distribution methods on the environment? Any analysis should include the distribution of suppliers and raw materials, company cars, service vehicles and staff commuters.

YESNO

Are commercial vehicles maintained regularly?

YESNO

Are effective emergency procedures in place for all transportation of potentially hazardous materials?

YESNO

Are the most appropriate distribution routes and methods being used? Is the company aware of the environmental impact of these activities?

YESNO

Is the company aware of the effects of its vehicle movements on the local community?

YESNO

Are company cars provided for employees? If so, are these cars essential for their work? Can company cars use lead-free petrol and are they fitted with catalytic converters? Has the company considered switching to diesel?

YESNO

Are there restrictions on engine size? Does the company pay private mileage or a fuel allowance? Are vehicles properly maintained?

YESNO

Could a pool car system be used rather than providing employees with company cars?

Waste

YESNO

Is waste of all types of paper, plastics and metals minimized? Is any residual waste recycled, reused or properly disposed of, if necessary?  Are waste disposal costs properly controlled?

YESNO

Does the company keep an inventory of how much waste it produces, and its detailed content and source? Does the company maintain records of waste production and disposal routes and costs?

YESNO

Are wastes separated to facilitate recycling?

YESNO

Does the company discuss with its suppliers whether packaging can be reduced or reused?

YESNO

Have recycling opportunities been fully explored and utilized? How much recycling does the company currently carry out?

YESNO

Has the company explored local waste exchange schemes? Could the company's waste could be another company's raw material?

YESNO

Have domestic wastes, such as food waste, packaging and beverage containers, been minimized?

YESNO

Are commercial waste disposal contractors properly registered, and are they cost-efficient and environmentally responsible?

YESNO

Do contractors recycle some of the company's waste? If so, how much and what benefit does it provide?

YESNO

Do contractors use disposal sites that are licensed to accept the company's waste?

YESNO

Do contractors operating on the company's site dispose of waste efficiently and in an environmentally responsible manner?

Waste Disposal

YESNO

Are wastes disposed of responsibly?

YESNO

Are accurate records kept of the wastes generated and their disposal routes?

YESNO

Have all costs involved in handling wastes (including storage transportation, treatment and disposal) been quantified? Is a record kept of waste disposal costs?

YESNO

Are wastes transported and disposed of in a way that minimizes any environmental impact and meets all legal requirements?

YESNO

Have all the available disposal routes been analyzed? Are there special legal requirements for transporting or disposing of the types of waste generated by the organization?

YESNO

Are the company's waste disposal contractors operating in an environmentally responsible manner? Have they been clearly informed of the content of the waste? Is the site chosen for disposal licensed to receive the waste?

YESNO

Does the company check that waste disposal contractors dispose of waste in a responsible manner?

YESNO

Are there formal contracts for the collection, treatment and disposal of the company's waste?

The following table will help in identifying and monitoring waste disposal issues.

Waste Inventory

Description of Waste Product

Source

Quantity Generated over the month

Storage Location and Container

Frequency of Collection

Contractor

Final Destinationand Method of Disposal

             
             

 

Water

YES NO

Is the water supply and sewage disposal efficiently managed?

YESNO

Is water usage and costs monitored and controlled?

YESNO

Does drinking water quality comply with legal requirements? Is this quality monitored?

YESNO

Is the water supply, sewage costs and quantities used/discharged monitored?

YESNO

Can usage and costs be compared across departments or sites?

YESNO

Is the water supply metered? Installing a meter may yield cost savings.

YESNO

Are flow meters and flow restructures appropriate to help to monitor and control consumption?

YESNO

Is there regular checking for leaks?

YESNO

Are automatic turn off valves installed on taps?

Water Use/Discharge

YESNO

Does the company know how much water it uses? Can the amount be reduced? How much does the company pay for water services? Can savings be made in this area?

YESNO

Does the company comply with all current legal controls on planned discharges of effluent? Is it aware of future controls?

YESNO

What does the company currently spend on water supply and sewerage/effluent treatment?

YESNO

Is the company's water supply being depleted by over-abstraction?

YESNO

Are all water supplies metered at each production function? Are all leaks mended quickly?

YESNO

Are alternative, cheaper sources (such as direct abstraction) available? Can cheaper supplies be obtained by accepting non-potable water?

YESNO

Are there opportunities to introduce or increase water or effluent recycling?

YESNO

Is effluent being disposed of efficiently and effectively? Are current and known future legislative requirements being met?

YESNO

Is it better to treat effluent on site or via the sewage system? Can the environmental impacts and costs be reduced, perhaps by sharing treatment facilities with adjacent businesses?

The following table will help in identifying and monitoring wastewater concerns.

Effluent/Wastewater Inventory

Discharge Type

Make-up Streams

Quantity Discharged

Treatment Methods

Discharge Point

Monitoring (Periodicity)

Approved (Y/N)  

             
             

Discharges - (e.g., surface/storm water run-off to river, process wastewaters to municipal sewer, sanitary/domestic wastewater to septic tanks, etc.)

Make-up streams-(e.g., process areas, boiler blow-down, vehicle wash, surface run-off, sanitary/domestic, laundry, laboratory, etc.)

Treatment methods
-(e.g., organic or oil separation, biological ETP, chemical treatment, settling pond, aeration/filtration/neutralization, etc.)

Monitoring
-(by whom and how often?)

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